Anatomia

Anatomia or anatomy encompasses the structure, organization, location, interrelationships, and function of the different parts of an organism.

Anatomy is the branch of biology that studies the internal body structure of living organisms and their parts(1).

Before the discovery of radiology, the only way to study and teach internal structures and organs was through dissection. Radiology helped correct mistaken anatomical notions made after examining cadavers(2).

Moreover, radiology allows students and professionals to visualize the actions, connections, and variability of the organs. Radiology plays an important role in identifying, interpreting, and learning about internal anatomical structures.

Radiology also helps detect deep-seated diseases in the early stages. Thus, it can be a useful aid in gross anatomy or the study of major body structures using dissection and observation.

Main Approaches to Studying Anatomy

There are three general approaches when studying gross anatomy or the human body’s larger structures. Systemic anatomy studies the body and its parts based on the different body systems. Some of the basic body systems are the muscular system, the nervous system, the cardiovascular system, and the digestive system. Clinical anatomy focuses on how body structures and functions as applied to different medical practices and health sciences. Clinical anatomy is often taught alongside regional or systemic anatomy. Regional anatomy, also referred to as topography anatomy, is the study of the human body according to regions. Regional anatomy studies the connections and interactions of the structures or organs within each region. Regional anatomy also explores how different body systems in each region work with each other. Modern teaching curricula commonly use the regional anatomy approach as it is easier to apply to a clinical setting compared to systemic anatomy(3).

Anatomical Regions of the Human Body

The human body may be divided into several anatomical regions. Each main area is further divided into smaller regions to help in compartmentalization and classification. The major anatomical regions are(4):

  • Head
  • Neck
  • Thorax (chest)
  • Abdomen
  • Pelvis
  • Upper extremities
  • Lower extremities

Anatomical Regions and Radiology

Radiology offers a non-destructive and non-invasive method of testing the body to detect the smallest deviation from normal anatomy conditions. In clinical settings, radiology and medical imaging give physicians a way to inspect the human body more accurately and identify causes of discomfort, disease, or death. Different medical imaging methods or tests are used to visualize the inner body structures. Some of the most frequently used radiology imaging modalities or forms are X-rays, computed tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, ultrasonography (U/S), and nuclear imaging scans(5).

Head and Neck

The head and neck region includes all anatomical structures from the neck upwards. This region includes the neck, oral cavity (mouth), nose, eyes, ears, and skull. Examples of radiology imaging tests for the head and neck regions are head CT scans and neck CT scans. These imaging procedures may be used to check for bleeding, blood clots, or skull fractures(6).

Head MRIs are commonly used to help diagnose stroke, brain tumors, and hydrocephalus (build-up of fluid in the brain cavities)(7).

Thorax

The thorax region refers to the trunk or chest area. Chest X-rays are common medical imaging tests(8).

Patients with breathing issues and chest pains or injuries may be advised to get chest X-rays. Chest CT scans are also common chest imaging exams used to check the size and diameter of different organs(9).

Abdomen and Pelvis

The abdomen and pelvis regions are often grouped together in radiology and medical imaging tests. A commonly conducted imaging test on the abdomen and pelvis region is the abdominopelvic CT(10).

Doctors often perform a combined PET/CT scan to diagnose or evaluate cancers in the abdominopelvic region(11).

Positron emission tomography (PET) scan is a nuclear imaging technique(12).

Upper Extremities

The upper extremities region starts from the shoulders. Other main parts of the upper extremity anatomy are the arms, elbows, forearms, and hands. The upper extremity is also referred to as the upper limb. MRIs, such as shoulder and wrist MRIs, are the usual imaging method of choice for examining joints(13).

X-rays of the arms, forearms, and hands may be recommended to check for bone injuries, such as broken bones and fractures, or to check for bone development in children(14).

Lower Extremities

The lower extremities are also called the lower limb. This anatomical region may be divided into several parts: hip, thigh, knee, leg, ankle, and foot. MRI scans are often conducted on joints in the lower extremities, similar to the upper extremity. Knee MRIs are the most commonly ordered medical imaging exams for the musculoskeletal system(15).

X-rays may also be ordered to help assess bone injuries in the legs, knee, and ankle. Another imaging procedure that may be conducted on the lower extremity region is a venous ultrasound. This procedure is often done to check for deep vein thrombosis or blood clots in leg veins(16).

Correct understanding of the human anatomy and proper interpretation of radiological imaging results are vital for detecting diseases and maintaining optimal health.


  1. Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2018, Sept. 26). Anatomy. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/science/anatomy
  2. Bardeen, C. R. (1927, May 1). The Use of Radiology in Teaching Anatomy. Radiology, 8(5). https://doi.org/10.1148/8.5.384
  3. LibreTexts. (2020, Aug. 14). Defining Anatomy. Retrieved from https://med.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Anatomy_and_Physiology/Book%3A_Anatomy_and_Physiology_(Boundless)/1%3A_Introduction_to_Anatomy_and_Physiology/1.1%3A_Overview_of_Anatomy_and_Physiology/1.1A%3A_Defining_Anatomy
  4. Rad, A. (2020, Dec. 7). Basic anatomy and terminology. Kenhub. Retrieved from https://www.kenhub.com/en/library/anatomy/human-anatomy-terminology
  5. Vasković, J. (2020, Oct. 29). Medical imaging and radiological anatomy. Kenhub. Retrieved from https://www.kenhub.com/en/library/anatomy/medical-imaging-and-radiological-anatomy
  6. Radiological Society of North America. (2018, June 22). Computed Tomography (CT) - Head. Radiology Info. Retrieved from https://www.radiologyinfo.org/en/info.cfm?pg=headct
  7. Radiological Society of North America. (2019, Feb. 5). Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head. Radiology Info. Retrieved from https://www.radiologyinfo.org/en/info.cfm?pg=headmr
  8. Mayo Clinic. (2020, May 2). Chest X-rays. Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/chest-x-rays/about/pac-20393494
  9. Vasković, J. (2020, Oct. 29). Op. cit.
  10. Ibid.
  11. Radiological Society of North America. (2019, Aug. 1). Positron Emission Tomography - Computed Tomography (PET/CT). Radiology Info. Retrieved from https://www.radiologyinfo.org/en/info.cfm?pg=pet
  12. Vasković, J. (2020, Oct. 29). Op. cit.
  13. Ibid.
  14. John Hopkins Medicine. X-rays of the extremities. Retrieved from https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/treatment-tests-and-therapies/xrays-of-the-extremities
  15. Vasković, J. (2020, Oct. 29). Op. cit.
  16. Radiological Society of North America. (2019, Feb. 5). Ultrasound - Venous (Extremities). Radiology Info. Retrieved from https://www.radiologyinfo.org/en/info.cfm?pg=venousus

References


The Lumbar Spine The spine consists of three main segments: the cervical spine, thoracic spine, and lumbar spine(1). The cervical spine refers to the upper part of the spine(2). It consists of seven vertebrae or bones. The thoracic spine is the…
This webpage presents the anatomical structures found on abdominal X-ray. The Abdomen The abdomen is the anterior part of the body’s trunk between the diaphragm and the pelvic brim(1). Pelvic brim refers to the pelvic inlet’s bony edges that…
Anatomy of the Foot and Ankle The foot is a structure of the body with numerous joints, bones, muscles, ligaments, and tendons. It is responsible for the coordinated movements of gait and the body’s ability to stand upright(1). The primary bones in…
The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) is a group of subcortical nuclei found deep within the brain’s cerebral hemispheres or white matter(1). The subcortical structures form part of the extrapyramidal motor system and work with the pyramidal and limbic…
This webpage presents the anatomical structures found on ankle radiograph. AP projection The Ankle The ankle joint is usually one of the most injured joints and the most common type of fracture treated by orthopedic surgeons(1). Although the ankle…
Reference Naidich TP, Daniels DL, Pech P, Haughton VM, Williams A, Pojunas K. Anterior commissure: anatomic-MR correlation and use as a landmark in three orthogonal planes. Radiology. 1986 Feb;158(2):421-9. Harnsberger HR, Osborn AG, Ross JS, Moore…
Radiologists routinely use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to diagnose many upper abdominal tumors(1). MRI is non-ionizing, making the modality more advantageous over other imaging sequences that involve higher radiation exposure. MRI can provide…
An “overview” of the brain anatomy is offered on this page. A review of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used as support. The anatomy of the brain is studied by means of axial, coronal and sagittal views. The MRI sequence used is a 3D…
Abdominal Computed Tomography Abdominal computed tomography (CT) is a type of medical imaging procedure used to diagnose and monitor internal stomach issues, like cancer, bowel obstruction, and abdominal pain. Radiographers suggest an abdominal CT…
This photo gallery presents the anatomy of the chest by means of CT (axial reconstructions - mediastinal window). The chest or thorax is the region between the neck and diaphragm that encloses organs, such as the heart, lungs, esophagus, trachea, and…
This webpage presents the anatomical structures found on knee MRI. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a radiologic procedure that uses a magnetic field and radio waves to develop detailed image cross-sections of the body, including the knee(…
Radiologists primarily perform shoulder imaging to assess injuries within the shoulder joint. Experts analyze the different imaging techniques to identify better diseases associated with the shoulder, including AC joint osteoarthritis and RC…
This webpage presents the anatomical structures found on wrist MRI. The wrist consists of multiple joints where the bones of the arm and hand meet to facilitate movement(1). Research showed that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the wrist helps…
This photo gallery presents the anatomy of brainstem by means of MRI (T1-weighted sagittal, axial and coronal views). Brainstem = Midbrain + Pons + Medulla The Brainstem The brainstem refers to the middle part of the brain(1). It consists of the…
The images below are reconstructions obtained from a scan of the cervical spine. Each row of three thumbnails correspond to a given level and the green cross indicates the reference planes for each image of this Level. Clinicians use a computed…
This gallery of images presents the anatomy of the temporal bone by means of CT-scan (reconstructions). Computed tomography or CT scan of the temporal bone uses X-ray technology and advanced computer software to generate detailed images of the head…
This webpage presents the anatomical structures found on wrist CT. Computed tomography (CT) scans of the wrist have been used to assess fusion procedures, foreign bodies, masses, and carpal fractures(1). A study suggested that CT scans allow the…
The images below are reconstructions obtained from a scan of the craniocervical junction. Each row of three thumbnails correspond to a given level and the green cross indicates the reference planes for each image of this Level.
This webpage presents the anatomical structures found on orbit CT. Computed tomography (CT) is the standard diagnostic test for evaluating cross-sectional, two- or three-dimensional images of the body(1). Healthcare providers often debate whether CT…
Gallery #1: level 1 to 6 Gallery #2: Serie of successive coronal reconstructions Gallery #3: Series of successive sagittal reconstructions This page presents the anatomy of middle ear by means of CT-scan. You have three different galleries of images…
This photo gallery presents the anatomy of caudate nucleus by means of MRI (T1-weighted axial, sagittal and coronal views). The caudate nucleus (CN) plays a vital role in various higher neurological functions. The CN is a paired, C-shaped subcortical…
The central sulcus (fissure of Rolando) separates the frontal lobe (anterior) from the parietal lobe (posterior). The location of the central sulcus is made by finding the intersection of the superior frontal sulcus with the precentral sulcus on…
This photo gallery presents the anatomy of Cerebellum by means of MRI (T1-weighted sagittal, axial and coronal views). The cerebellum, Latin for “little brain,” is found at the base of the hindbrain or back of the brain. Findings showed that the…
This photo gallery presents the anatomical structures found on cerebral CT. Cerebral Computed Tomography (CT) Cerebral computed tomography (CT) is a radiographic procedure that uses X-rays to produce medical images of the head, including the brain…
This web page presents the anatomy of cisterns and subarachnoid spaces by means of MRI. Premedullary cistern   Prepontine cistern   Cerebellopontine cistern   Cisterna magna     Superior cerebellar cistern   Interpeduncular cistern…
The brain can be divided into left and right cerebral hemispheres. Each cerebral hemisphere is divided into six sections, called “lobes”: frontal lobe, parietal lobe, temporal and occipital lobe; plus two other that are not visible from outside…
Bibliographie: • Harnsberger HR, Osborn AG, Ross JS, Moore KR, Salzman KL, Carrasco CR, Halmiton BE, Davidson HC, Wiggins RH. Diagnostic and Surgical Imaging Anatomy: Brain, Head and Neck, Spine. 3rd ed. Salt Lake City, Utah. Amirsys. 2007.
This photo gallery presents the anatomical structures found on cervical spine MRI (T2-weighted axial and sagittal views). The Cervical Spine The neck is part of the spinal column or backbone, which extends through most of the body(1). The cervical…
This photo gallery presents the anatomical structures found on cervical spine radiographs.
This photo gallery presents the anatomy of the lung by means of CT (axial, coronal, and sagittal reconstructions - pulmonary window). Computed tomography (CT) of the thorax allows radiologists to assess thoracic disorders or chest abnormalities. CT…
Two chest radiographs are proposed: one AP projection, the other lateral projection. The legend is in the middle of the page. Chest X-ray: AP Projection Chest X-ray: lateral projection Chest X-ray or chest radiograph is the most commonly performed…
This photo gallery presents the anatomy of corpus callosum by means of MRI (T1-weighted sagittal, axial and coronal views). The corpus callosum, meaning “calloused body” in Latin, is a thick bundle of nerves that bridges the brain’s two cerebral…
This webpage presents the anatomical structures found on elbow radiographs. Elbow Radiograph - AP projection Elbow Radiograph - Lateral projection
This photo gallery presents the anatomy of the abdomen by means of Entero-MRI.
This webpage presents the anatomical structures found on foot radiograph. Foot X-ray AP Foot X-ray oblique What Is Foot Radiograph? A foot radiograph or X-ray is a diagnostic imaging test that uses radiation to produce an image of the foot’s bones…
This webpage presents the anatomical structures found on forearm x-ray. AP Projection. Lateral projection. This webpage presents the anatomical structures found on the forearm x-ray. An X-ray uses radiation to take black and white images of the…
This photo gallery presents the anatomy of fornix by means of MRI (T1-weighted sagittal, axial and coronal views). The fornix, which means “arch” in Latin, is a C-shaped bundle of white matter (nerve fibers) in the brain. The fornix is an essential…
The frontal lobe is located in the anterior part of the cerebral hemispheres: • Anterior to the parietal lobe. (The frontal lobe is separated from the parietal lobe by the central sulcus (of Rolando)). • Superior to the . (The frontal lobe is…
This page describes the path of the glossopharyngeal nerve with brain MRI (axial T1 and T2 weighted images). Bibliographie: • Harnsberger HR, Osborn AG, Ross JS, Moore KR, Salzman KL, Carrasco CR, Halmiton BE, Davidson HC, Wiggins RH. Diagnostic and…
This webpage presents the anatomical structures found on hand radiography. Hand radiography - AP projection
This webpage presents the anatomical structures found on hip radiograph. Hip radiography, AP view. Hip radiography, “frog leg” lateral view. Hip radiography (or hip X-ray) uses a small amount of radiation to produce images of the hip joints, which…
The hypothalamus is a portion of the brain near the third ventricle, located below the thalamus and above the brainstem. The anterior boundary of the hypothalamus is determined by the line connecting the anterior commissure, the lamina terminalis and…
The Insular lobe (nsula) is located in depth of Sylvian fissure. The cortex of the insula is covered by frontal operculum, parietal operculum and temporal operculum. The insula has five gyri. The Anatomy of the Insula The insular lobe or insula is…
This photo gallery presents the anatomy of internal capsule by means of MRI (T1-weighted axial and coronal views). Reference: • Harnsberger HR, Osborn AG, Ross JS, Moore KR, Salzman KL, Carrasco CR, Halmiton BE, Davidson HC, Wiggins RH. Diagnostic…
Venous sinuses: locations on axial cuts (MRI of the brain after medium contrast administration) - Gallery 1 Venous sinuses: locations on sagittal and coronal slices (MRI of the brain after medium contrast administration) - Gallery 2 Venous sinuses of…
This webpage presents the anatomical structures found on knee radiograph. Knee Radiograph - AP Knee Radiograph - Lateral What Is a Knee Radiograph? Knee radiographs (X-rays) are used to evaluate fractures and degenerative disorders associated with…
The lateral sulcus (Sylvian fissure) separates the frontal lobe (superior) from the temporal lobe (inferior). The insula lobe is located in depth of the lateral sulcus and is covered by the cortex from the frontal lobe, temporal and parietal…
There are several areas in the lateral ventricle: • the frontal horn, which is bounded by the caudate nucleus, Corpus callosum and septum pellucidum • the body of the lateral ventricle is bounded by the caudate nucleus / thalamus, corpus callosum and…
This photo gallery presents the anatomy of lentiform nucleus by means of MRI (T1-weighted axial and coronal views). Reference: • Harnsberger HR, Osborn AG, Ross JS, Moore KR, Salzman KL, Carrasco CR, Halmiton BE, Davidson HC, Wiggins RH. Diagnostic…
The images below are reconstructions obtained from a scan of lumbar spine. Each row of three thumbnails correspond to a given level and the green cross indicates the reference planes for each image of this Level. Computed tomography (CT) is a proven…
This webpage presents the anatomical structures found on lumbar spine radiographs. spine X-ray, AP projection Lumbar spine X-ray, lateral view
This gallery of images presents the anatomy of the neck vessels (carotid and vertebral arteries) by means of magnetic resonance angiography. Carotid and Vertebral Arteries Carotid and vertebral arteries lie on either side of the neck(1). They supply…
Gallery #1: Circle of Willis: AP view with rotations Gallery #2: Circle of Willis: lateral view with rotations These two photo galleries present the anatomy of Circle of Willis by means angio-MRI (Maximum Intensity Projection Time-Of-Flight). The…
Radiologists perform ankle imaging to assess injuries of the foot and ankle anatomy. Experts analyze the different imaging techniques to identify better diseases associated with the foot and ankle, including diabetic foot ulcers and abnormal growths…
This webpage presents the anatomical structures found on elbow MRI. MRI Examination of the Elbow Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the procedures used in examining the joints(1). Common elbow afflictions are associated with sports injuries(…
This webpage presents the anatomical structures found on female pelvis MRI. Magnetic resonance imaging or MRI of the female pelvis offers a unique display of the pelvic anatomy, including a woman’s ovaries, uterus, and fallopian tubes. MRI is a…
This webpage presents the anatomical structures found on hip MRI. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) utilizes magnet and radio waves to produce diagnostic images that allow a doctor to visualize the hips. This medical imaging method can detect stress…
This page describes the path of the oculomotor nerve with brain MRI (axial, coronal and sagittal T1-weighted images). Clinicians use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as the imaging technique to diagnose ischemic vasculopathy, mass formation, or…
This webpage presents the anatomical structures found on thigh MRI. Thigh Magnetic Resonance Imaging The thigh has some of the body’s largest muscles. Thigh muscles are responsible for allowing normal gait and proper lower extremity function(1). The…
At the level of the cerebral hemisphere, gray matter is mainly distributed in the periphery (cortex) while the white matter is deep. However, there is gray matter in depth of the brain called basal ganglia. In the brainstem, gray matter is usually…
This photo gallery presents the anatomy of pituitary gland by means of MRI (T2-weighted coronal views, T1-weighted sagittal and coronal views). The pituitary gland is a small gland that controls the body’s hormones(1). A pituitary MRI or magnetic…
This webpage presents the anatomical structures found on male pelvis MRI. Radiologists have historically imaged the male pelvis using many methods. Modalities range from conventional cystography, excretory urography, and retrograde urethrography to…
This photo gallery presents the anatomy of Medulla by means of MRI (T1-weighted sagittal, axial and coronal views).
This photo gallery presents the anatomy of midbrain by means of MRI (T1-weighted sagittal, axial and coronal views).
The Internal carotid artery divides into middle cerebral artery and anterior cerebral artery. The middle cerebral artery travels to the lateral fissure. The middle cerebral artery is divided into 4 parts: M1 segment, horizontal, from the internal…
There are 32 permanent teeth in the adult. Each quadrant has 2 incisors, 1 canine, 2 premolars, 3 molars. The numbering is done with two numbers: the first number indicates the dial, the second tooth itself: • First number: Maxilla: upper right:…
This photo gallery presents the anatomical structures found on paranasal sinuses radiography. Paranasal Sinuses Paranasal sinuses refer to paired air-filled spaces surrounding the nasal cavity(1). The nasal cavity is a system of air channels that…
This web page presents the anatomical structures found on paranasal sinuses CT. Paranasal Sinuses Paranasal sinuses refer to a group of air-filled spaces around the nasal cavity (a system of air channels that connect the nose with the back of the…
The parietal lobe is located in the upper part of the cerebral hemispheres: • posterior to the frontal lobe • superior to the temporal lobe • the parietal lobe is partially separated from the temporal lobe by the Sylvian fissure (lateral sulcus…
Parietooccipital sulcus separates partially the parietal lobe from occipital lobe in his medial part. Parietooccipital sulcus delimits the precuneus (parietal lobe) from the cuneus (occipital lobe). Bibliographie: • Harnsberger HR, Osborn AG, Ross JS…
This webpage presents the anatomical structures found on pelvis radiograph. Radiographs or X-rays are one of the many diagnostic imaging modalities used to diagnose and evaluate pelvic disorders. In particular, X-rays are a basic tool for studying…
This photo gallery presents the anatomy of pineal gland by means of MRI (T1-weighted sagittal, axial and coronal views). Harnsberger HR, Osborn AG, Ross JS, Moore KR, Salzman KL, Carrasco CR, Halmiton BE, Davidson HC, Wiggins RH. Diagnostic and…
This photo gallery presents the anatomy of Pons by means of MRI (T1-weighted sagittal, axial and coronal views).
The posterior cerebral arteries arise from the division of Basilar artery. The posterior cerebral arteries end above the tentorium, in the calcarine sulcus. Posterior cerebral artery is divided into 4 parts: P1 segment courses from the basilar artery…
This webpage presents the anatomical structures found on thumb radiograph. The thumb, unlike other fingers, has only two phalanges: the proximal phalanx and the distal phalanx. The metacarpal connects the proximal phalanx of the thumb to the carpal…
This photo gallery presents the anatomy of sacrum and coccyx by means of 3D-reconstructions, axial, sagittal and coronal reconstructions obtained from a scan of pelvis. Sacrum The sacrum refers to the bony structure located at the base of the lumbar…
This webpage presents the anatomical structures found on MR arthrography of the shoulder. The Shoulder The shoulder connects the upper arms to the torso(1). The shoulder joint is the most flexible joint in the human body. Three bones, ligaments…
This webpage presents the anatomical structures found on shoulder X-ray. Shoulder X-ray, AP projection Shoulder X-ray: lateral view Experts agree that imaging assessment of shoulder disorders must begin with radiographs. Radiologists have developed…
The sagittal suture is the line where the right and left parietal bone are in contact. The coronal suture is the line where the parietal bone frontal bone and are in contact. The lambdoid suture is a line where the parietal bone occipital bone and…
Gyrus (plural gyri) is a ridge on the cerebral cortex. Sulcus (plural sulci) is a groove that separates gyri. The cerebral hemispheres are separated by a median cleft: the inherhemispheric fissure (great longitudinal fissure). The falx cerebri…
The temporal lobe is located in the lower part of the cerebral hemispheres: • Inferior to the frontal lobe and parietal lobe. The temporal lobe is separated from the frontal lobe by the lateral sulcus (or Sylvian fissure). • Anterior to the occipital…
This photo gallery presents the anatomy of thalamus by means of MRI (T1-weighted axial, sagittal and coronal views). Harnsberger HR, Osborn AG, Ross JS, Moore KR, Salzman KL, Carrasco CR, Halmiton BE, Davidson HC, Wiggins RH. Diagnostic and Surgical…
The Internal carotid artery divides into middle cerebral artery and anterior cerebral artery. The anterior cerebral artery enters the longitudinal interhemispheric fissure of the brain. The anterior communicating artery connects right anterior…
This webpage presents the anatomical structures found on spinal canal. The Spinal Cord and Its Functions The brain and spinal cord are part of the central nervous system (CNS)(1). The CNS is responsible for bodily functions, such as motor skills…
The occipital lobe is located in the posterior part of the cerebral hemispheres: • posterior to the temporal lobe and parietal lobe • the occipital lobe is partially separated from the parietal lobe by the parietooccipital fissure. • In addition…
This photo gallery presents the anatomical structures found on thoracic spine radiographs.
This page describes the path of the trigeminal nerve with brain MRI (axial, coronal and sagittal T1- and T2- weighted images). Bibliographie: • Harnsberger HR, Osborn AG, Ross JS, Moore KR, Salzman KL, Carrasco CR, Halmiton BE, Davidson HC, Wiggins…
The ventricular system consists of: • two lateral ventricles • the third ventricle • the fourth ventricle. The lateral ventricle communicates with the third ventricle by the interventricular foramen or foramen of Monro. The third ventricle is in…
This webpage presents the anatomical structures found on wrist radiographs.
This webpage presents the anatomical structures found on skull base CT. Foramina of the Skull Base The foramina of the skull refer to small openings that allow the passage of nerves and blood vessels(1). The human skull has various foramina in which…

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