Anatomia

Anatomia or anatomy encompasses the structure, organization, location, interrelationships, and function of the different parts of an organism.

Anatomy is the branch of biology that studies the internal body structure of living organisms and their parts(1)

Before the discovery of radiology, the only way to study and teach internal structures and organs was through dissection. Radiology helped correct mistaken anatomical notions made after examining cadavers(2).

Moreover, radiology allows students and professionals to visualize the actions, connections, and variability of the organs. Radiology plays an important role in identifying, interpreting, and learning about internal anatomical structures. 

Radiology also helps detect deep-seated diseases in the early stages. Thus, it can be a useful aid in gross anatomy or the study of major body structures using dissection and observation.

Main Approaches to Studying Anatomy

There are three general approaches when studying gross anatomy or the human body’s larger structures. 

Systemic anatomy studies the body and its parts based on the different body systems. Some of the basic body systems are the muscular system, the nervous system, the cardiovascular system, and the digestive system.

Clinical anatomy focuses on how body structures and functions as applied to different medical practices and health sciences. Clinical anatomy is often taught alongside regional or systemic anatomy. 

Regional anatomy, also referred to as topography anatomy, is the study of the human body according to regions.

Regional anatomy studies the connections and interactions of the structures or organs within each region. Regional anatomy also explores how different body systems in each region work with each other.

Modern teaching curricula commonly use the regional anatomy approach as it is easier to apply to a clinical setting compared to systemic anatomy(3).

Anatomical Regions of the Human Body

The human body may be divided into several anatomical regions. Each main area is further divided into smaller regions to help in compartmentalization and classification.

The major anatomical regions are(4):

  • Head
  • Neck
  • Thorax (chest)
  • Abdomen
  • Pelvis
  • Upper extremities 
  • Lower extremities

Anatomical Regions and Radiology

Radiology offers a non-destructive and non-invasive method of testing the body to detect the smallest deviation from normal anatomy conditions.

In clinical settings, radiology and medical imaging give physicians a way to inspect the human body more accurately and identify causes of discomfort, disease, or death.

Different medical imaging methods or tests are used to visualize the inner body structures. 

Some of the most frequently used radiology imaging modalities or forms are X-rays, computed tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, ultrasonography (U/S), and nuclear imaging scans(5).

Head and Neck

The head and neck region includes all anatomical structures from the neck upwards. This region includes the neck, oral cavity (mouth), nose, eyes, ears, and skull.

Examples of radiology imaging tests for the head and neck regions are head CT scans and neck CT scans. These imaging procedures may be used to check for bleeding, blood clots, or skull fractures(6).

Head MRIs are commonly used to help diagnose stroke, brain tumors, and hydrocephalus (build-up of fluid in the brain cavities)(7).

Thorax

The thorax region refers to the trunk or chest area. Chest X-rays are common medical imaging tests(8). Patients with breathing issues and chest pains or injuries may be advised to get chest X-rays.

Chest CT scans are also common chest imaging exams used to check the size and diameter of different organs(9).

Abdomen and Pelvis

The abdomen and pelvis regions are often grouped together in radiology and medical imaging tests.

A commonly conducted imaging test on the abdomen and pelvis region is the abdominopelvic CT(10). Doctors often perform a combined PET/CT scan to diagnose or evaluate cancers in the abdominopelvic region(11).

Positron emission tomography (PET) scan is a nuclear imaging technique(12).

Upper Extremities

The upper extremities region starts from the shoulders. Other main parts of the upper extremity anatomy are the arms, elbows, forearms, and hands. The upper extremity is also referred to as the upper limb.

MRIs, such as shoulder and wrist MRIs, are the usual imaging method of choice for examining joints(13).

X-rays of the arms, forearms, and hands may be recommended to check for bone injuries, such as broken bones and fractures, or to check for bone development in children(14).

Lower Extremities

The lower extremities are also called the lower limb. This anatomical region may be divided into several parts: hip, thigh, knee, leg, ankle, and foot.

MRI scans are often conducted on joints in the lower extremities, similar to the upper extremity. Knee MRIs are the most commonly ordered medical imaging exams for the musculoskeletal system(15).

X-rays may also be ordered to help assess bone injuries in the legs, knee, and ankle.

Another imaging procedure that may be conducted on the lower extremity region is a venous ultrasound. This procedure is often done to check for deep vein thrombosis or blood clots in leg veins(16).

Correct understanding of the human anatomy and proper interpretation of radiological imaging results are vital for detecting diseases and maintaining optimal health.


  1. Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2018, Sept. 26). Anatomy. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/science/anatomy
  2. Bardeen, C. R. (1927, May 1). The Use of Radiology in Teaching Anatomy. Radiology, 8(5). https://doi.org/10.1148/8.5.384   
  3. LibreTexts. (2020, Aug. 14). Defining Anatomy. Retrieved from https://med.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Anatomy_and_Physiology/Book%3A_Anatomy_and_Physiology_(Boundless)/1%3A_Introduction_to_Anatomy_and_Physiology/1.1%3A_Overview_of_Anatomy_and_Physiology/1.1A%3A_Defining_Anatomy
  4. Rad, A. (2020, Dec. 7). Basic anatomy and terminology. Kenhub. Retrieved from https://www.kenhub.com/en/library/anatomy/human-anatomy-terminology
  5. Vasković, J. (2020, Oct. 29). Medical imaging and radiological anatomy. Kenhub. Retrieved from https://www.kenhub.com/en/library/anatomy/medical-imaging-and-radiological-anatomy
  6. Radiological Society of North America. (2018, June 22). Computed Tomography (CT) – Head. Radiology Info. Retrieved from https://www.radiologyinfo.org/en/info.cfm?pg=headct
  7. Radiological Society of North America. (2019, Feb. 5). Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) – Head. Radiology Info. Retrieved from https://www.radiologyinfo.org/en/info.cfm?pg=headmr
  8. Mayo Clinic. (2020, May 2). Chest X-rays. Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/chest-x-rays/about/pac-20393494
  9. Vasković, J. (2020, Oct. 29). Op. cit.
  10. Ibid.
  11. Radiological Society of North America. (2019, Aug. 1). Positron Emission Tomography – Computed Tomography (PET/CT). Radiology Info. Retrieved from https://www.radiologyinfo.org/en/info.cfm?pg=pet 
  12. Vasković, J. (2020, Oct. 29). Op. cit.
  13. Ibid.
  14. John Hopkins Medicine. X-rays of the extremities. Retrieved from https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/treatment-tests-and-therapies/xrays-of-the-extremities
  15. Vasković, J. (2020, Oct. 29). Op. cit.
  16. Radiological Society of North America. (2019, Feb. 5). Ultrasound – Venous (Extremities). Radiology Info. Retrieved from https://www.radiologyinfo.org/en/info.cfm?pg=venousus

Intracranial Venous System

Venous sinuses: locations on axial cuts (MRI of the brain after medium contrast administration) Venous sinuses: locations on sagittal and coronal slices (MRI of the brain after medium contrast administration) Venous sinuses of the brain: sequence Time-of-flight Intracranial Venous System The intracranial or cerebral venous system is a network of nerves made up of two …

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MRA of the Circle of Willis

These two photo galleries present the anatomy of Circle of Willis by means angio-MRI (Maximum Intensity Projection Time-Of-Flight). Circle of Willis: AP view with rotations Circle of Willis: lateral view with rotations The circle of Willis plays a crucial part in maintaining blood flow in the brain. The circle of Willis is where several arteries …

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Atlas of Knee MRI Anatomy

This webpage presents the anatomical structures found on knee MRI. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a radiologic procedure that uses a magnetic field and radio waves to develop detailed image cross-sections of the body, including the knee(1).  Medical images from an MRI allow medical professionals to distinguish body tissues, including the meniscus (shock absorbers in …

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CT of the Craniocervical junction

The images below are reconstructions obtained from a scan of the craniocervical junction. Each row of three thumbnails correspond to a given level and the green cross indicates the reference planes for each image of this Level.

CT Scan of the Cervical Spine

The images below are reconstructions obtained from a scan of the cervical spine. Each row of three thumbnails correspond to a given level and the green cross indicates the reference planes for each image of this Level. Clinicians use a computed tomography (CT) scan to diagnose a particular disorder or disease and detect tumors, brain …

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Corpus callosum

Corpus Callosum

This photo gallery presents the anatomy of corpus callosum by means of MRI (T1-weighted sagittal, axial and coronal views). The corpus callosum, meaning “calloused body” in Latin, is a thick bundle of nerves that bridges the brain’s two cerebral hemispheres or sides(1). The rapid development of the corpus callosum starting from infancy continues until an …

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MRI of the Female Pelvis

This webpage presents the anatomical structures found on female pelvis MRI. Magnetic resonance imaging or MRI of the female pelvis offers a unique display of the pelvic anatomy, including a woman’s ovaries, uterus, and fallopian tubes.  MRI is a valuable technique in diagnosing or staging anomalies or conditions in the female pelvic region. Unlike sonography …

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foramina of the skull base (CT)

This webpage presents the anatomical structures found on skull base CT. Foramina of the Skull Base The foramina of the skull refer to small openings that allow the passage of nerves and blood vessels(1).  The human skull has various foramina in which cranial nerves, veins, arteries, and other essential structures pass(2). Moreover, the frontal, ethmoid, …

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Fornix of the Brain

This photo gallery presents the anatomy of fornix by means of MRI (T1-weighted sagittal, axial and coronal views). The fornix, which means “arch” in Latin, is a C-shaped bundle of white matter (nerve fibers) in the brain.  The fornix is an essential part of the limbic system and represents the hippocampus’ most extensive single pathway, …

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Frontal Lobe

The frontal lobe is located in the anterior part of the cerebral hemispheres: • Anterior to the parietal lobe. (The frontal lobe is separated from the parietal lobe by the central sulcus (of Rolando)). • Superior to the . (The frontal lobe is separated from the by the lateral fissure of Sylvius). Magnetic resonance imaging …

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Glossopharyngeal nerve

This page describes the path of the glossopharyngeal nerve with brain MRI (axial T1 and T2 weighted images). Bibliographie: • Harnsberger HR, Osborn AG, Ross JS, Moore KR, Salzman KL, Carrasco CR, Halmiton BE, Davidson HC, Wiggins RH. Diagnostic and Surgical Imaging Anatomy: Brain, Head and Neck, Spine. 3rd ed. Salt Lake City, Utah. Amirsys. …

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MRI of the Hip: Detailed Anatomy

This webpage presents the anatomical structures found on hip MRI. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) utilizes magnet and radio waves to produce diagnostic images that allow a doctor to visualize the hips. This medical imaging method can detect stress fractures or bone bruises that a regular X-ray usually misses. According to a study, MRI is the …

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Hypothalamus

The hypothalamus is a portion of the brain near the third ventricle, located below the thalamus and above the brainstem. The anterior boundary of the hypothalamus is determined by the line connecting the anterior commissure, the lamina terminalis and the optic chiasm. The lower limit of the hypothalamus is formed by the infundibulum, the tuber …

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Insular Lobe (Insula)

The Insular lobe (nsula) is located in depth of Sylvian fissure. The cortex of the insula is covered by frontal operculum, parietal operculum and temporal operculum. The insula has five gyri. The Anatomy of the Insula The insular lobe or insula is one of the least understood regions of the brain(1). It is known as …

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Internal capsule

This photo gallery presents the anatomy of internal capsule by means of MRI (T1-weighted axial and coronal views). Reference: • Harnsberger HR, Osborn AG, Ross JS, Moore KR, Salzman KL, Carrasco CR, Halmiton BE, Davidson HC, Wiggins RH. Diagnostic and Surgical Imaging Anatomy: Brain, Head and Neck, Spine. 3rd ed. Salt Lake City, Utah. Amirsys. …

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Cerebral Cisterns

This web page presents the anatomy of cisterns and subarachnoid spaces by means of MRI. Premedullary cistern   Prepontine cistern   Cerebellopontine cistern   Cisterna magna     Superior cerebellar cistern   Interpeduncular cistern   Ambient cistern   Quadrigeminal cistern   Suprasellar cistern   What Are Cerebral Cisterns?  Cisterns, commonly known as subarachnoid cisterns, are …

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Lateral Sulcus

The lateral sulcus (Sylvian fissure) separates the frontal lobe (superior) from the temporal lobe (inferior). The insula lobe is located in depth of the lateral sulcus and is covered by the cortex from the frontal lobe, temporal and parietal (operculum) The lateral sulcus, also referred to as the Sylvian fissure or lateral fissure, is one …

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Lateral Ventricles

There are several areas in the lateral ventricle: • the frontal horn, which is bounded by the caudate nucleus, Corpus callosum and septum pellucidum • the body of the lateral ventricle is bounded by the caudate nucleus / thalamus, corpus callosum and fornix • the atrium: this is the focal point of the occipital and …

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Lentiform nucleus

This photo gallery presents the anatomy of lentiform nucleus by means of MRI (T1-weighted axial and coronal views). Reference: • Harnsberger HR, Osborn AG, Ross JS, Moore KR, Salzman KL, Carrasco CR, Halmiton BE, Davidson HC, Wiggins RH. Diagnostic and Surgical Imaging Anatomy: Brain, Head and Neck, Spine. 3rd ed. Salt Lake City, Utah. Amirsys. …

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Cerebral hemispheres (overview)

The brain can be divided into left and right cerebral hemispheres. Each cerebral hemisphere is divided into six sections, called “lobes”: frontal lobe, parietal lobe, temporal and occipital lobe; plus two other that are not visible from outside: Insula and limbic lobe. To locate these different lobes of the brain, a 3D reconstruction was made​ …

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Cerebellum

This photo gallery presents the anatomy of Cerebellum by means of MRI (T1-weighted sagittal, axial and coronal views). The cerebellum, Latin for “little brain,” is found at the base of the hindbrain or back of the brain. Findings showed that the cerebellum plays a vital role in maintaining balance, coordinating voluntary muscle movement, and executing …

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Central sulcus (fissure of Rolando)

The central sulcus (fissure of Rolando) separates the frontal lobe (anterior) from the parietal lobe (posterior). The location of the central sulcus is made by finding the intersection of the superior frontal sulcus with the precentral sulcus on axial slices near the top: see figure 8. Reference • Harnsberger HR, Osborn AG, Ross JS, Moore …

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Caudate nucleus

Caudate Nucleus

This photo gallery presents the anatomy of caudate nucleus by means of MRI (T1-weighted axial, sagittal and coronal views). The caudate nucleus (CN) plays a vital role in various higher neurological functions. The CN is a paired, C-shaped subcortical structure located deep inside the brain near the thalamus(1). Caudate nuclei contain a large anterior head, …

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Brainstem

This photo gallery presents the anatomy of brainstem by means of MRI (T1-weighted sagittal, axial and coronal views). Brainstem = Midbrain + Pons + Medulla The Brainstem The brainstem refers to the middle part of the brain(1). It consists of the medulla, pons, and midbrain. The brainstem helps relay sensory information, such as pain, eye …

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Anatomy of the Basal Ganglia

• Lentiforme Nucleus = putamen + globus pallidus • Corpus striatum = caudate nucleus + putamen + globus pallidus • Neostriatum = caudate nucleus + putamen. Basal ganglia denote the nuclei of gray matter deep below the cerebral hemispheres. The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) is a group of subcortical nuclei found deep within the …

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Atlas MRI Abdomen

This photo gallery presents the anatomy of the abdomen by means of MRI. Radiologists routinely use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to diagnose many upper abdominal tumors(1). MRI is non-ionizing, making the modality more advantageous over other imaging sequences that involve higher radiation exposure. MRI can provide practical information and better soft tissue resolution than computed …

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Cerebral CT

This photo gallery presents the anatomical structures found on cerebral CT. Cerebral Computed Tomography (CT) Cerebral computed tomography (CT) is a radiographic procedure that uses X-rays to produce medical images of the head, including the brain, skull, sinuses, and eye sockets(1). Through cerebral CT, radiographers see the patient’s brain without the need for surgery. The …

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Cerebrospinal Fluid – Choroid Plexus

Bibliographie: • Harnsberger HR, Osborn AG, Ross JS, Moore KR, Salzman KL, Carrasco CR, Halmiton BE, Davidson HC, Wiggins RH. Diagnostic and Surgical Imaging Anatomy: Brain, Head and Neck, Spine. 3rd ed. Salt Lake City, Utah. Amirsys. 2007.

Hand radiography

This webpage presents the anatomical structures found on hand radiography. Hand radiography – AP projection

Forearm X-ray

This webpage presents the anatomical structures found on forearm x-ray. AP Projection. Lateral projection.

Foot X-ray

This webpage presents the anatomical structures found on foot radiograph. Foot X-ray AP Foot X-ray oblique What Is Foot Radiograph? A foot radiograph or X-ray is a diagnostic imaging test that uses radiation to produce an image of the foot’s bones and soft tissues(1). An X-ray image shows darker shades for the muscles and soft …

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Elbow Radiograph

This webpage presents the anatomical structures found on elbow radiographs. Elbow Radiograph – AP projection Elbow Radiograph – Lateral projection

Knee radiograph

This webpage presents the anatomical structures found on knee radiograph. Knee Radiograph – AP Knee Radiograph – Lateral What Is a Knee Radiograph? Knee radiographs (X-rays) are used to evaluate fractures and degenerative disorders associated with the knee joints, such as arthritis(1). During knee X-rays, the knee can be examined in an anterior-posterior view (front …

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Hip Radiography

This webpage presents the anatomical structures found on hip radiograph. Hip radiography, AP view. Hip radiography, “frog leg” lateral view. Hip radiography (or hip X-ray) uses a small amount of radiation to produce images of the hip joints, which attach the legs to the pelvis. A radiographic examination is the most basic and critical method …

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CT Scan of the Wrist

This webpage presents the anatomical structures found on wrist CT. Computed tomography (CT) scans of the wrist have been used to assess fusion procedures, foreign bodies, masses, and carpal fractures(1). A study suggested that CT scans allow the imaging of the wrist bones during motion(2). This procedure is essential in the diagnosis of vital carpal …

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CT Scan of the Temporal Bone

This gallery of images presents the anatomy of the temporal bone by means of CT-scan (reconstructions). Computed tomography or CT scan of the temporal bone uses X-ray technology and advanced computer software to generate detailed images of the head. The temporal bones are situated at the skull’s base and sides.  CT scan allows the radiologist …

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Lumbar Spine Computed Tomography

The images below are reconstructions obtained from a scan of lumbar spine. Each row of three thumbnails correspond to a given level and the green cross indicates the reference planes for each image of this Level. Computed tomography (CT) is a proven method for evaluating the lumbar spine. This imaging modality provides great bone detail …

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Chest X-ray

Two chest radiographs are proposed: one AP projection, the other lateral projection. The legend is in the middle of the page. Chest X-ray: AP Projection Chest X-ray: lateral projection Chest X-ray or chest radiograph is the most commonly performed diagnostic imaging test. This noninvasive method produces images of the heart, lungs, airways, blood vessels, and …

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Posterior cerebral artery

The posterior cerebral arteries arise from the division of Basilar artery. The posterior cerebral arteries end above the tentorium, in the calcarine sulcus. Posterior cerebral artery is divided into 4 parts: P1 segment courses from the basilar artery to the posterior communicating artery. The P1 segment passes over the oculomotor nerve (III). P2 segment begins …

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Pons (Anatomy with MRI)

This photo gallery presents the anatomy of Pons by means of MRI (T1-weighted sagittal, axial and coronal views).

Pineal gland

This photo gallery presents the anatomy of pineal gland by means of MRI (T1-weighted sagittal, axial and coronal views).  Harnsberger HR, Osborn AG, Ross JS, Moore KR, Salzman KL, Carrasco CR, Halmiton BE, Davidson HC, Wiggins RH. Diagnostic and Surgical Imaging Anatomy: Brain, Head and Neck, Spine. 3rd ed. Salt Lake City, Utah. Amirsys. 2007. …

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Pelvis Radiograph

Pelvis Radiograph

This webpage presents the anatomical structures found on pelvis radiograph. Radiographs or X-rays are one of the many diagnostic imaging modalities used to diagnose and evaluate pelvic disorders. In particular, X-rays are a basic tool for studying the hip and are always used in initial examinations of hip and pelvic issues(1). Anatomy of the Pelvis …

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Parietooccipital sulcus (MRI)

Parietooccipital sulcus separates partially the parietal lobe from occipital lobe in his medial part. Parietooccipital sulcus delimits the precuneus (parietal lobe) from the cuneus (occipital lobe). Bibliographie: • Harnsberger HR, Osborn AG, Ross JS, Moore KR, Salzman KL, Carrasco CR, Halmiton BE, Davidson HC, Wiggins RH. Diagnostic and Surgical Imaging Anatomy: Brain, Head and Neck, …

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Parietal Lobe

The parietal lobe is located in the upper part of the cerebral hemispheres: • posterior to the frontal lobe • superior to the temporal lobe • the parietal lobe is partially separated from the temporal lobe by the Sylvian fissure (lateral sulcus). • Anterior to the occipital lobe. • The parietal lobe is separated from …

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Panoramic radiography

There are 32 permanent teeth in the adult. Each quadrant has 2 incisors, 1 canine, 2 premolars, 3 molars. The numbering is done with two numbers: the first number indicates the dial, the second tooth itself: • First number: Maxilla: upper right: 1; upper left 2; Mandible: lower right: 4; lower left: 3. • Second …

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CT of the Orbit: anatomy

This webpage presents the anatomical structures found on orbit CT. Computed tomography (CT) is the standard diagnostic test for evaluating cross-sectional, two– or three-dimensional images of the body(1). Healthcare providers often debate whether CT or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the orbit is more effective in identifying orbital pathology symptoms. Some experts state that age, …

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MRI of the Oculomotor Nerve

This page describes the path of the oculomotor nerve with brain MRI (axial, coronal and sagittal T1-weighted images). Clinicians use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as the imaging technique to diagnose ischemic vasculopathy, mass formation, or aneurysm(1). MRI is also the modality of choice in patients with cranial nerve palsy and the assessment of ocular motor …

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Atlas of BRAIN MRI

An “overview” of the brain anatomy is offered on this page. A review of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used as support. The anatomy of the brain is studied by means of axial, coronal and sagittal views. The MRI sequence used is a 3D gradient echo T1-weighted. For a more detailed description of the …

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The Anatomy of the Anterior Cerebral Artery

The Internal carotid artery divides into middle cerebral artery and anterior cerebral artery. The anterior cerebral artery enters the longitudinal interhemispheric fissure of the brain. The anterior communicating artery connects right anterior communicating artery to left anterior communicating artery. The anterior cerebral artery is divided into 3 parts: A1 segment, horizontal, get around in the …

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Ankle radiograph

This webpage presents the anatomical structures found on ankle radiograph. AP projection The Ankle The ankle joint is usually one of the most injured joints and the most common type of fracture treated by orthopedic surgeons(1).  Although the ankle is often referred to as a single joint, it consists of the true ankle joint and …

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MRI of the Ankle: Detailed Anatomy

This webpage presents the anatomical structures found on ankle MRI. Radiologists perform ankle imaging to assess injuries of the foot and ankle anatomy. Experts analyze the different imaging techniques to identify better diseases associated with the foot and ankle, including diabetic foot ulcers and abnormal growths in the foot and ankle(1). How Does Ankle MRI …

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Occipital Lobe

The Occipital Lobe

The occipital lobe is located in the posterior part of the cerebral hemispheres: • posterior to the temporal lobe and parietal lobe • the occipital lobe is partially separated from the parietal lobe by the parietooccipital fissure. • In addition, there is only virtual separation between the temporal lobe and occipital lobe. Anatomy of the …

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Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the turcic sella (pituitary gland)

This photo gallery presents the anatomy of pituitary gland by means of MRI (T2-weighted coronal views, T1-weighted sagittal and coronal views). The pituitary gland is a small gland that controls the body’s hormones(1). A pituitary MRI or magnetic resonance imaging is a technique that takes pictures of the brain’s pituitary gland and its surrounding areas.  …

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MRI of the Elbow: Detailed Anatomy

This webpage presents the anatomical structures found on elbow MRI. MRI Examination of the Elbow Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the procedures used in examining the joints(1). Common elbow afflictions are associated with sports injuries(2). Joint disorders and injuries, such as fractures, sprains, arthritis, dislocation, and bursitis (bone cushion disorder), are diagnosed using …

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Cervical Spine MRI Anatomy

This photo gallery presents the anatomical structures found on cervical spine MRI (T2-weighted axial and sagittal views). The Cervical Spine The neck is part of the spinal column or backbone, which extends through most of the body(1). The cervical spine or the neck region has seven bones separated from each other through intervertebral discs. These …

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Shoulder MR Arthrography Anatomy

This webpage presents the anatomical structures found on MR arthrography of the shoulder. The Shoulder The shoulder connects the upper arms to the torso(1). The shoulder joint is the most flexible joint in the human body.  Three bones, ligaments, tendons, and several different muscles meet in the shoulder(2). How they are connected allows individuals to …

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Middle Cerebral Artery

The Internal carotid artery divides into middle cerebral artery and anterior cerebral artery. The middle cerebral artery travels to the lateral fissure. The middle cerebral artery is divided into 4 parts: M1 segment, horizontal, from the internal carotid artery to the lateral fissure M2 segment, insular, designates the branches located inside the Sylvian fissure (to …

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Midbrain

This photo gallery presents the anatomy of midbrain by means of MRI (T1-weighted sagittal, axial and coronal views).

Atlas of CT Anatomy of the Chest

This photo gallery presents the anatomy of the chest by means of CT (axial reconstructions – mediastinal window). The chest or thorax is the region between the neck and diaphragm that encloses organs, such as the heart, lungs, esophagus, trachea, and thoracic diaphragm.  Computed tomography (CT) of the chest can detect pathology that may not …

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Chest Computed Tomography

This photo gallery presents the anatomy of the lung by means of CT (axial, coronal, and sagittal reconstructions – pulmonary window). Computed tomography (CT) of the thorax allows radiologists to assess thoracic disorders or chest abnormalities. CT provides useful diagnostic information that is not usually attainable by conventional noninvasive radiological techniques(1). CT Technique Radiologists must …

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Medulla (Anatomy with MRI)

This photo gallery presents the anatomy of Medulla by means of MRI (T1-weighted sagittal, axial and coronal views).

Male Pelvis Magnetic Resonance Imaging

This webpage presents the anatomical structures found on male pelvis MRI. Radiologists have historically imaged the male pelvis using many methods. Modalities range from conventional cystography, excretory urography, and retrograde urethrography to computed tomography and sonography(1). However, in the study, the initial expectations of each method exceeded the long-term results. Thus, experts believe that the …

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Lumbar Spine X-ray

This webpage presents the anatomical structures found on lumbar spine radiographs. spine X-ray, AP projection Lumbar spine X-ray, lateral view

Wrist Radiographs

This webpage presents the anatomical structures found on wrist radiographs.

Ventricular system

The ventricular system consists of: • two lateral ventricles • the third ventricle • the fourth ventricle. The lateral ventricle communicates with the third ventricle by the interventricular foramen or foramen of Monro. The third ventricle is in communication with the fourth ventricle through the cerebral aqueduct. The fourth ventricle is related to the subarachnoid …

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Anatomy of the Ankle and Foot

This webpage presents the anatomical structures found on ankle CT. Anatomy of the Foot and Ankle The foot is a structure of the body with numerous joints, bones, muscles, ligaments, and tendons. It is responsible for the coordinated movements of gait and the body’s ability to stand upright(1). The primary bones in the foot are …

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Trigeminal nerve

This page describes the path of the trigeminal nerve with brain MRI (axial, coronal and sagittal T1- and T2- weighted images). Bibliographie: • Harnsberger HR, Osborn AG, Ross JS, Moore KR, Salzman KL, Carrasco CR, Halmiton BE, Davidson HC, Wiggins RH. Diagnostic and Surgical Imaging Anatomy: Brain, Head and Neck, Spine. 3rd ed. Salt Lake …

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Thoracic Spine X-ray

This photo gallery presents the anatomical structures found on thoracic spine radiographs.

Thalamus

This photo gallery presents the anatomy of thalamus by means of MRI (T1-weighted axial, sagittal and coronal views). Harnsberger HR, Osborn AG, Ross JS, Moore KR, Salzman KL, Carrasco CR, Halmiton BE, Davidson HC, Wiggins RH. Diagnostic and Surgical Imaging Anatomy: Brain, Head and Neck, Spine. 3rd ed. Salt Lake City, Utah. Amirsys. 2007. Bourjat …

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Temporal Lobe

The temporal lobe is located in the lower part of the cerebral hemispheres: • Inferior to the frontal lobe and parietal lobe. The temporal lobe is separated from the frontal lobe by the lateral sulcus (or Sylvian fissure). • Anterior to the occipital lobe. The temporal lobe is virtually continuous with the occipital lobe. Harnsberger …

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The Anatomy of the Spinal Cord

This webpage presents the anatomical structures found on spinal canal. The Spinal Cord and Its Functions The brain and spinal cord are part of the central nervous system (CNS)(1). The CNS is responsible for bodily functions, such as motor skills, sensory responses, and cognitive functions(2). There are three specific spinal cord functions: motor, sensation, and …

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Skull CT anatomy

The sagittal suture is the line where the right and left parietal bone are in contact. The coronal suture is the line where the parietal bone frontal bone and are in contact. The lambdoid suture is a line where the parietal bone occipital bone and are in contact. The lambda is the point where joins …

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Paranasal sinuses CT anatomy

This web page presents the anatomical structures found on paranasal sinuses CT. Paranasal Sinuses Paranasal sinuses refer to a group of air-filled spaces around the nasal cavity (a system of air channels that connect the nose with the back of the throat)(1). They facilitate the circulation of the air breathed in and out of the …

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Shoulder X-Ray

This webpage presents the anatomical structures found on shoulder X-ray. Shoulder X-ray, AP projection Shoulder X-ray: lateral view Experts agree that imaging assessment of shoulder disorders must begin with radiographs. Radiologists have developed several radiographic examinations to best show the areas affected by specific clinical disorders(1). Grashey View This projection is a true anterior-posterior (AP) …

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Atlas of Shoulder MRI Anatomy

This webpage presents the anatomical structures found on shoulder MRI. Radiologists primarily perform shoulder imaging to assess injuries within the shoulder joint. Experts analyze the different imaging techniques to identify better diseases associated with the shoulder, including AC joint osteoarthritis and RC tendinosis(1). How Does Shoulder MRI Work? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tests involve large …

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Sacrum and Coccyx Anatomy

This photo gallery presents the anatomy of sacrum and coccyx by means of 3D-reconstructions, axial, sagittal and coronal reconstructions obtained from a scan of pelvis. Sacrum The sacrum refers to the bony structure located at the base of the lumbar vertebrae. It forms the posterior pelvic wall(1). The sacrum helps strengthen and stabilize the pelvis(2). …

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Paranasal Sinuses Radiography

This photo gallery presents the anatomical structures found on paranasal sinuses radiography. Paranasal Sinuses Paranasal sinuses refer to paired air-filled spaces surrounding the nasal cavity(1). The nasal cavity is a system of air channels that connect the nose with the back of the throat. Paranasal sinuses enable the circulation of the air breathed in and …

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Radiograph of the thumb

This webpage presents the anatomical structures found on thumb radiograph. The thumb, unlike other fingers, has only two phalanges: the proximal phalanx and the distal phalanx. The metacarpal connects the proximal phalanx of the thumb to the carpal bones, through the trapeze. The metacarpophalangeal joint connects the metacarpal bone to the proximal phalanx. The interphalangeal …

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Atlas of Wrist MRI Anatomy

This webpage presents the anatomical structures found on wrist MRI. The wrist consists of multiple joints where the bones of the arm and hand meet to facilitate movement(1). Research showed that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the wrist helps influence clinicians’ diagnoses and management plans(2). MRI is a non-invasive imaging technology that produces detailed images …

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Atlas of CT Anatomy of the Abdomen

This photo gallery presents the anatomy of the abdomen by means of CT (axial, coronal, and sagittal reconstructions). Abdominal Computed Tomography Abdominal computed tomography (CT) is a type of medical imaging procedure used to diagnose and monitor internal stomach issues, like cancer, bowel obstruction, and abdominal pain. Radiographers suggest an abdominal CT scan to look …

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Abdominal X-ray

This webpage presents the anatomical structures found on abdominal X-ray. The Abdomen The abdomen is the anterior part of the body’s trunk between the diaphragm and the pelvic brim(1). Pelvic brim refers to the pelvic inlet’s bony edges that separate the false (major) pelvis and true (minor) pelvis. Abdominal muscles help regulate respiration, protect the …

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Abdominal ultrasound

This photo gallery presents the anatomy of the superior abdomen by means of ultrasound.

Abdominal aorta

This photo gallery presents the anatomy of the Abdominal aorta by means of CT-scan (3D reconstructions).

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